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Basics Of Share Market











Content :



  • What Is Share Market

  • Getting Familiar With Market-Related Concepts

  • How Does Stock Market Works

  • What Are Different Type Of Stocks

  • All You Need To Know About Stock Quotes

  • What Are Stock Market Indices





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Chapter 1.1: WHAT IS SHARE MARKET?


A share market is a place where shares are either issued or traded in.

A stock market is similar to a share market. The key difference is that a stock market helps you trade financial instruments like bonds, mutual funds, derivatives as well as shares of companies. A share market only allows trading of shares.

The key factor is the stock exchange – the basic platform that provides the facilities used to trade company stocks and other securities. A stock may be bought or sold only if it is listed on an exchange. Thus, it is the meeting place of the stock buyers and sellers.There are many stock exchanges in india. But, India's premier stock exchanges are the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange.



THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF SHARE MARKETS – PRIMARY AND SECOND MARKETS.

Primary Market:

This where a company gets registered to issue a certain amount of shares and raise money. This is also called listing company in a stock exchange.

A company enters primary markets to raise capital. If the company is selling shares for the first time, it is called an Initial Public Offering (IPO). The company thus becomes public.


Secondary Market:

Once new securities have been listed in the primary market, these shares are traded in the secondary market. Secondary market transactions are referred to trades where one investor buys shares from another investor at the prevailing market price or at whatever price the two parties agree upon.

Normally, investors conduct such transactions using an intermediary such as a broker, who facilitates the process.



HOW TO BUY SHARES?

First, you need to open a trading account and a demat account. This trading and demat account will be linked to your savings account to facilitate smooth transfer of money and shares.


You can open your trading account and demet account with any stock broker, Stock brokers are register members of stock exchange. After getting activated your trading and demet account you can trade in stock market.

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WHAT is sebi and what DOES THE SEBI DO?

Stock markets are risky. Hence, they need to be regulated to protect investors. The Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is mandated to oversee the secondary and primary markets in India since 1988 when the Government of India established it as the regulatory body of stock markets. Within a short period of time, SEBI became an autonomous body through the SEBI Act of 1992.

SEBI has the responsibility of both development and regulation of the market. It regularly comes out with comprehensive regulatory measures aimed at ensuring that end investors benefit from safe and transparent dealings in securities.





Its basic objectives are:

  • Protecting the interests of investors in stocks

  • Promoting the development of the stock market

  • Regulating the stock market





































Chapter 1.2: Getting familiar with market-related concepts



Now that we are done with the basics, let’s move on to some terms and concepts you would frequently hear with respect to the stock markets.

WHAT ARE DIVIDENDS?

As we learned earlier, a share is a portion of the company. When the company makes profits, you often receive a part of it. This is the idea behind dividends. Every year, companies distribute a small amount of profits to investors as dividends. This is the primary source of income for long-term shareholders – those who don’t sell the stock for years together.

WHAT IS MARKET CAPITALIZATION?



Different companies issue varied amounts of shares when they get listed. The value of one share also differs from that of another company’s stock. Market capitalization smoothens out these differences. It is the market stock price multiplied by the total number of shares held by the public. It, thus, reflects the total market value of a stock taking into consideration both the size and the price of the stock. For example, if a stock is priced at Rs. 50 per share, and there are 1,00,000 shares in the hands of public investors, then its market capitalization stands at Rs. 50,00,000.

Market capitalization matters when stacking stocks into different indices. It also decides the weightage of a stock in the index. This means, bigger the company’s market value, the more its price fluctuations affect the value of the index.


WHAT ARE ROLLING SETTLEMENTS?

Supposing your friend agrees to buy a book for you from a bookshop, you will have to pay him for it eventually. Similarly, after you have bought or sold shares through your broker, the trade has to be settled. Meaning, the buyer has to receive his shares and the seller has to receive his money. Settlement is the process whereby payment is made by the buyers, and shares are delivered by the sellers.

A rolling settlement implies that all trades have to be settled by the end of the day. Hence, the entire transaction – where the buyer pays for securities purchased and seller delivers the shares sold – have to be completed in a day. 

In India, we have adopted the T+2 settlements cycle. This means that a transaction conducted on Day 1 has to be settled on the Day 1 + 2 working days. This is when funds are paid and securities are transferred. Thus, 'T+2' here, refers to Today + 2 working days. Saturdays and Sundays are not considered as working days. So, if you enter into a transaction on Friday, the trade will be settled not on Sunday, but on Tuesday. Even bank and exchange holidays are excluded

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WHAT IS SHORT-SELLING?

An investor sells short when he anticipates that the price of a stock may fall from the existing price. So, the investor borrows a share and sells it. Once the share price dips, he will buy the same share at a lower price, and return it back, while pocketing a profit in the bargain. Simply put, you first sell at a high and then buy at a low. Short-selling helps traders profit from declining stock and index prices. Since this is usually conducted in anticipation of a stock movement, short-selling is considered a risky proposition.

Let us take an example. Suppose you expect shares of Infosys to fall tomorrow for whatever reason, you enter an order to sell shares of Infosys at the current market price. Once the share price falls adequately tomorrow, you buy at the lower rate. The difference in the sale and buying prices is your profit. However, if the share prices increase after you sold at a reduced price, then you end up with a loss.


WHAT ARE CIRCUIT FILTERS AND TRADING BANDS?

Some stocks are more volatile than others. Too much volatility is not good for investors. To curb this volatility, SEBI has come up with the concept of circuit filters. The market regulator has specified the maximum limit the price of a stock can move on a given day. This is called a price trading band. If a stock breaches this limit, trading is halted in that stock for a while. There are three levels of limits. Each limit leads to trading halt for a progressively longer duration. If all three circuit filters are breached, then trading is halted for the rest of the day. NSE define circuit filters in 5 categories including 2%, 5%, 10%, 20% and no circuit filter. 

Also, prices may not be same on the two exchanges – NSE and BSE. So, circuit filters can be different for shares on the two exchanges.


WHAT ARE BULL AND BEAR MARKETS?

Markets are often described as ‘bull’ or ‘bear’ markets. These names have been derived from the manner in which the animals attack their opponents. A bull thrusts its horns up into the air, and a bear swipes its paws down. These actions are metaphors for the movement of a market: if stock prices trend upwards, it is considered a bull market; if the trend is downwards, it is considered a bear market.

The supply and demand for securities largely determine whether the market is in the bull or bear phase. Forces like investor psychology, government involvement in the economy and changes in economic activity also drive the market up or down. These combine to make investors bid higher or lower prices for stocks.


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